The way a processor works is clearly shown in Von Neumann’s architecture as it shows how the processor can read or write with both the memory and backing storage but can only read from input devices and write to output devices.
The processor consists of 3 main parts. The first is the ALU or Arithmetic Logic Unit, this is the part of the CPU that does all the calculations and logic operations, such as AND, NOT and OR.
The second part is the control unit, this is what manages the fetching, decoding, and executing of instructions. If this part of the processor is enhanced, ie. the clock speed is increased, then the over computer can work faster as the control unit can execute instructions quicker.
The third part are the registers. These are split into 3 main pieces. Firstly the MAR or memory address register is where the address of the memory being used is held. It informs the main memory what memory location is about to used. Next is the MDR or memory data register which stores data in a memory location and reads data from a memory location. The last piece are the other general purpose registers that are just very fast temporary storage locations that hold the data being processed and the instructions being executed.
The way in which all these parts of a processor are connected up is through buses. Buses are physical wires that are used to transmit information and connect each piece of the processor together and connect the processor to the other parts of the computer system, such as main memory or backing storage.